Lead has been part of the human civilization for thousands of years. Nowadays is the fourth more used non ferrous metal, because its massive use persists in the developed economies as well as in the underdeveloped.

Lead offers, among other advantages, a very low melting point and an extreme malleability that allows an easy casting, laminating and welding. Lead, as well, presents a very high resistance to corrosion, being numerous the examples of lead products that have lasted for centuries.

The world dependence on lead is basically due to its use in car batteries manufacturing.

In 1970 this application was a 22% of the total use of lead in the western countries and nowadays more than 80% of lead is dedicated to car batteries manufacturing.

The future of lead is inevitably linked to the lead-acid battery. Regarding the batteries, and keeping in mind the present knowledge, it seems very difficult its substitution in the traditional fields, because of its reliability, performance and economy, and also because of the highly efficient lead waste recycling mechanisms.

Refinning Kettle Lead output Laboratory sample
Car Battery